Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer

A Comprehensive Patient Guide to Symptoms, Treatment, Research, and Support
 

 
Updated: June 20, 2017
167 Pages

 
 

What is Bladder Cancer?

The urinary bladder is a hollow, balloon-like organ located in the pelvis that collects and stores urine until it is ready to be excreted from the body. Urine is produced in the kidneys and is transported to the bladder through two tube-like structures called ureters. Pressure from the accumulation of urine in the urinary bladder forces the wall of the bladder to contract producing the urge to urinate. The urine is then excreted from the bladder via the urethra (a thin tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).

The wall of the bladder is composed of several different layers that are important in understanding the development, progression, and treatment of bladder cancer. When viewed under a microscope, a cross-section of the bladder wall reveals the following layers of cells:

  • Epithelium - The epithelium is a layer of cells that lines the inside of the bladder wall and is also known as the urothelium or transitional epithelium. The vast majority of bladder cancers originate in the transitional epithelium.

  • Lamina propria - This is the layer of connective tissue and blood vessels located immediately beneath the transitional epithelium.

  • Muscularis propria - This is the deep layer of muscle cells that form the wall of the bladder.

  • Perivesicle soft tissue - This is the outermost layer of the bladder wall that consists of fat, fibrous connective tissue, and blood vessels. Bladder cancer that has spread to the perivesicle soft tissue is considered as having spread outside of the bladder.

Types of Bladder Cancer

There are four primary types of bladder tumors that can be distinguished on the basis of the appearance (morphology) of the cells under a microscope:

  • Transitional cell carcinoma - Also known as urothelial carcinoma, this type of bladder cancer affects the transitional epithelium that lines the wall of the bladder. In the United States, more than 90% of bladder tumors are classified as transitional cell carcinomas.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma - This type of bladder cancer represents only about 4% of all bladder tumors and is most commonly associated with chronic irritation of the bladder that can be caused by long-term indwelling bladder catheters or by bladder calculi (stones). Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder has also been linked to schistosomiasis (a tropical disease spread by parasitic trematode worms) which is endemic in Africa and the Middle East.

  • Adenocarcinoma - This is an extremely rare form of bladder cancer accounting for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. It tends to occur in mostly younger patients.

  • Small cell carcinoma - This type of bladder cancer is also very rare and represents about 1% of all bladder tumors.

Superficial bladder tumors are those that are localized (confined) to the transitional epithelium (urothelium) - the layer of epithelial cells that lines the inside of the bladder wall and is in direct contact with the urine - but have not spread to the deeper layers of the bladder. Additionally, bladder tumors that have invaded the lamina propria but have not invaded the muscularis propria can be considered as superficial.

Invasive bladder cancer refers to a bladder tumor that is either invading the muscularis propria - the deeper layer of muscle cells that forms the wall of the bladder - or the perivesical fat located beyond the bladder muscle. This type of tumor is referred to as muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer carries a higher risk of spreading beyond the bladder (metastases) and must be treated more aggressively than superficial bladder cancer. The term metastatic bladder cancer is used when the cancer cells have spread beyond the bladder to distant sites.

Bladder Cancer Statistics

  • Bladder cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer and the 9th leading cause of cancer deaths among American men.

  • Approximately 60,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year.

  • Bladder cancer occurs about 4 times more frequently in men than in women.

  • The rate of occurrence of bladder cancer in whites is about twice as high as that for African Americans.

  • Bladder cancer is primarily a disease of the elderly population with about 50% of cases occurring in people age 72 or older. The median age of diagnosis is 65 years.

  • At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder tumors are superficial; 20% are invasive; and up to 5% are metastatic.

  • There are over 500,000 bladder cancer survivors in the United States.

Knowledge is Critical when Dealing with a Life-Altering Condition such as Bladder Cancer

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with bladder cancer, it's critical to learn everything you possibly can about this condition so that you can make informed decisions about your treatment. That's why we created the Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer, a comprehensive 167 page patient Guidebook that contains vital information about bladder cancer that you won't find anywhere in a single source.

The Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer starts out with a detailed overview of the condition and quickly imparts fundamentally important information about bladder cancer, including:

  • The underlying causes of bladder cancer.
  • The risk factors that can increase a person's chances for developing bladder cancer.
  • The important distinction between superficial bladder tumors and muscle-invasive bladder cancer in terms of both approach to treatment and the long-term prognosis (chances of recovery).
  • A detailed overview of the TNM classification system that is used by doctors to stage patients with bladder cancer into different groups by measuring the extent of spread of the cancer based on factors such as:

    • Size of the tumor
    • Lymph node involvement
    • Metastatic spread of the tumor to other sites in the body
  • The signs and symptoms of bladder cancer.

  • How bladder cancer is diagnosed based on factors such as signs/symptoms, patient history, physical examination, and imaging studies.
  • The role of cystoscopy and tissue biopsy in confirming the diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Understanding the Standard Treatments... and the Treatment Options

The goals of treatment for patients with bladder cancer include:

  • Eradication of the tumor.
  • Prevention of tumor recurrence.
  • Prevention of tumor progression from superficial to muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • Preservation of bladder function.
  • Enabling patients to lead a reasonably good quality of life.

Understanding the standard treatments - and the treatment options - is critical for successfully achieving the goals of treatment for bladder cancer. As you read through the section of the Guidebook that focuses on the treatments for bladder cancer, you will specifically learn about:

  • The two major treatment modalities that are currently available for the management of superficial bladder cancer, which include:

    • Transurethral resection of the bladder
    • Intravesical therapy - direct administration of biological or chemotherapeutic agents into the bladder after the tumor has been removed
  • The treatment options that are currently available for the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which include:

    • Radical cystectomy
    • Chemotherapy plus radiation therapy with a goal of bladder preservation
  • The risks, benefits, and complications associated with radical cystectomy as a treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  • A detailed overview of urinary diversion surgical reconstruction procedures that are currently available for creating a conduit for the passage of urine through the abdominal wall following radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. These urinary diversion reconstructive surgical procedures include:

    • Ileal conduit procedure
    • Cecal conduit procedure
    • Continent diversion
    • Orthotopic continent diversion
  • The treatment options that are currently available for the management of patients with metastatic bladder cancer.

  • The role of complementary and alternative therapies in the management of people with bladder cancer.
  • The prognosis (outlook) for people with bladder cancer and the important factors that have a significant impact in predicting the overall chances of recovery.
  • Quality of life issues that often confront people with bladder cancer and how to minimize their impact and cope better with these issues.
  • Important questions to ask your doctor about bladder cancer.

A "One-of-a-Kind" Reference Guidebook on Bladder Cancer that Goes Way Beyond the Fundamentals

Since 1996, when Medifocus was founded, we've learned that many people with Bladder Cancer are seeking more specific information that goes beyond the fundamentals, such as the causes, diagnosis, standard treatments, and treatment options. That's why we developed a "one-of-a-kind" reference Guidebook that goes way beyond the basics and also includes the following sections:

  • A Guide to Recent Medical Literature on Bladder Cancer - This section of the Guidebook contains an extensive bibliography of over 100 references to recently published articles about Bladder Cancer in authoritative, peer-reviewed medical journals with links to the absracts (summaries) of the articles. These articles represent the latest advances in the field and focus on cutting-edge research, new developments, and the lessons learned from recently published clinical trials involving patients with Bladder Cancer. This is the same level of that is used by doctors who treat people with Bladder Cancer to keep abreast of the latest developments and breakthroughs in this specialized field of medicine.

  • Centers of Research for Bladder Cancer - We've compiled a unique directory of doctors, hospitals, medical centers, and research institutions with special interest and, in many cases, clinical expertise in managing people with Bladder Cancer. The "Centers of Research" directory is a valuable resource for quickly identifying and locating leading medical authorities and medical institutions both within the United States and other countries who are considered to be at the forefront in clinical research and treatment of Bladder Cancer. You'd have to spend days - or even weeks - attempting to compile your own list of doctors and medical centers but, with the "Centers of Research" directory, the information is already right at your fingertips. All you have to do is act on the information by selecting and contacting the experts or medical institutions listed in the directory by state and country.

  • Organizations and Support Groups for Bladder Cancer - The Guidebook also includes a directory of organizations and support groups whose goal is to help people with Bladder Cancer by providing access to information, resources, and services. Many of these organizations can answer your specific questions, enable you to "network" with other patients, and provide guidance in areas such as financial, social, or medical-legal issues. This valuable directory of organizations and support groups includes complete contact information, including phone numbers and E-mail addresses.

Look Inside the Guidebook

The Guidebook is a Value-Added Proposition that Comes with a Risk-Free Satisfaction Guarantee so that...You have Nothing to Lose and Everything to Gain

Still not sure if you'll benefit from the Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer? Still not convinced that the information included in the Guidebook is worth the minimal cost? If that's the case, then please consider the following value-added proposition that comes standard with your purchase of the Guidebook:

  • Free Updates for One Year - With your initial purchase of the Guidebook, you also receive access to free updates for one-full year. The Guidebook is updated with new information every 4 to 6 months, so that you will be able to access the updated information several times during the course of a year for up to one full year after the date of your initial purchase.

  • Free Digest E-Mail Alerts - When you purchase the Guidebook, you will also automatically receive a free subscription to our monthly newsletter - the Medifocus Digest Alert for Bladder Cancer. This is an expertly selected listing of the latest articles published in the medical literature about Bladder Cancer with convenient links to the abstracts of the articles that focus on cutting-edge research, clinical trials, and the latest treatment advances. The Medifocus Digest Alert for Bladder Cancer is automatically delivered straight to your "inbox" monthly and is a valuable resource for keeping up with the latest developments in Bladder Cancer almost as soon as the new information is published in the medical literature.

  • 20% Discount - For a limited time, you can purchase the Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer at a special 20% discount off the regular list price. Your 20% discount will automatically be applied when you go to "Checkout".

  • Risk-Free Satisfaction Guarantee - Your purchase comes with our RISK-FREE satisfaction guarantee. If, for whatever reason, you are not totally satisfied with the content of your Guidebook, simply contact us within 30-days of your purchase for a prompt, full refund. We are so confident that you will be satisfied with your Guidebook that we offer this RISK-FREE satisfaction guarantee unconditionally - no questions and no hassles.

Order Your Copy of the Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer Today!

The Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer (167 pages; last updated June 20, 2017) is available in the following two convenient formats:

  • PRINTED GUIDEBOOK - Soft-cover book that is available for immediate shipping via either U.S. Priority Mail or International AirMail (outside the U.S.):

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Medifocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer


Updated: June 20, 2017
167 Pages

This one of a kind Guidebook offers:

  • Answers to your critical health questions including the latest treatments, clinical trials, and expert research.
     
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  • Less 20% Discount = - $5.60
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"My father, a veterinarian, was recently diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer. In wondering how best to support him, I decided to gift him a copy of the MediFocus Guidebook on Bladder Cancer. I knew it would appeal to his "scientific side". I wrote a loving and personal message in the Guide to remind him how much I loved him and then gave it to him. After reading the Guide, he took it to his Urologist and was able to generate excellent and candid questions about his condition."
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Modesto, California


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